The MSU VDL Toxicology Section’s general organic compound screen is a popular test for veterinary clinicians, law enforcement, and animal producers attempting to evaluate an animal’s possible exposure to chemicals that may have led to an acute illness or untimely death. Results of this assay have been published (see references below) for several unique poisoning cases and have had much success in aiding the enforcement of animal cruelty laws and in ensuring food/feed safety for producers and regulators.

The most common question the Toxicology Section receives is “What do you see?” or “What can I expect that you test for?” To answer that question, in addition to being transparent about the libraries that we utilize, we have compiled a list of compounds reported by our section over the last seven years. This is not all-inclusive, but it is a start!

Drugs
  • 4-hydroxyphenylbutazone
    Etodolac
    Nicotine
  • Acepromazine
    Etorphine
    Nortriptyline
  • Acetaminophen
    Fluconazole
    O-hydroxycocaine
  • Acetylsalicylic acid
    Flunixin
    Omeprazole
  • Amantadine
    Fluoxetine
    Ondansetron
  • Amphetamine
    Furazolidone
    Pentobarbital
  • Atropine
    Furosemide
    Pentoxifylline
  • Azaperone
    Gabapentin-Lactam
    Phenobarbital
  • Benzoylecgonine
    Glyburide
    Phenylbutazone
  • Benzyl alcohol
    Guaiacol
    Phenytoin
  • Butorphanol
    Guaifenasin
    Procaine
  • Caffeine
    Hydroxyzine
    Promethazine
  • Cannabidiol
    Ibuprofen
    Propanolol
  • Cannabinol
    Isoniazid
    Propofol
  • Capsaicin
    Ketamine + norketamine
    Pyrantel
  • Carbamazepine
    Lamotrigine
    Pyrimethamine
  • Carprofen
    Lasalocid
    Ranitidine
  • Chloropyramine
    Levamisole
    Salbutamol
  • Chlorpheniramine
    Levetiracetam
    Salicyluric acid
  • Clindamycin
    Lidocaine
    Sulfamethazine
  • Cocaine
    Lufenuron
    Sulfamethoxazole
  • Cotinine
    MEGX
    Terpin hydrate
  • Cyproheptadine
    Meloxicam
    Thiopental
  • Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
    Menadione
    Tiletamine
  • Dexamethasone
    Menthol
    Tolfenamic acid
  • Dextromethorphan
    Meperidine
    Topiramate
  • Diazepam + nordiazepam
    Methadone
    Tramadol
  • Diclofenac
    Methimazole
    Trazodone
  • Diltiazem
    Methocarbamol
    Triclosan
  • Dimethyl Sulfone
    Methsuximide
    Trimethoprim
  • Diphenhydramine
    Methylparaben
    Verapamil
  • Doxapram
    Metoclopramide
    Xylazine
  • Ecgonine methyl ester
    Metoprolol
    Yohimbine
  • EDDP-Methadone
    Metronidazole
    Zolazepam
  • Embutramide
    Midazolam
    Zonisamide
  • Enalapril
    Mirtazepine
  • Ethosuximide
    Naproxen
Food
  • 4-methyphenol
    Methyl Salicylate
    Vanillin
  • Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
    Propylparaben
    Vitamin E Acetate
  • Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)
    Saccharin
    Xylitol
  • Ethoxyquin
    Theobromine
    Vanillin
Herbicides
  • Atrazine
    Metolachlor
    Rhodamine B
  • Chlorpropham
    Oxadiazon
Industrial Compounds
  • Phenylacetyl glycine
    Abietic acid
    Pyrogallol
  • Cadaverine
    Cedar oil
    Salicylic acid
  • Tyramine
    Hyoscyamine
    Viridicatin
  • Urea
    Isopimaric acid
    Zearalenone
  • 3,5-dimethoxyphenol
    Pimaric acid
Pesticides
  • (Z)-9-tricosene
    Diethyltoluamide (DEET)
    Metaldehyde
  • Acephate
    Dihydroactinidiolide
    Methiocarb
  • Aldicarb + nitrile + oxime + sulfoxide
    Dimethoate
    Methomyl + oxime
  • Alpha-chloralose
    Diphenadione (Diphacinone)
    Methoprene
  • Alpha-lindane
    Disulfoton
    Methyl parathion
  • Avitrol
    Endosulfan
    Mevinphos
  • Bendiocarb
    Endosulfan 1 and 2
    Mirex
  • Bifenthrin
    Endosulfan sulfate
    Oxamyl
  • Bromethalin
    Ethion
    Oxychlordane
  • Carbofuran + phenol
    Etofenprox
    Pentachlorophenol
  • Chlordane
    Eugenol
    Permethrin
  • Chlorfenapyr
    Famphur
    Phorate+sulfoxide
  • Chlorpyrifos
    Fenthion
    Phosphorothioic acid (Diazinon)
  • Coumaphos
    Fipronil
    Piperonyl butoxide
  • Cyfluthrin
    Heptachlor
    Pirimiphos methyl
  • DDE
    Heptachlor epoxide
    Pyriproxyfen
  • DDT
    Imidacloprid
    Strychnine
  • Deltamethrin
    Indoxacarb
    Terbufos
  • Denatonium
    Lambda-cyhalothrin
    Tetrachlorvinphos
  • Dicrotophos
    Leucomalachite green
    Trans-nonachlor
  • Dieldrin
    Malathion

About the Method:

  • The method is based on a FERN/QuEChERS extraction with both acidic and basic fractions and their trimethylsilyl derivatives introduced to a gas chromatography mass spectrometry system.
  • Data analysis is performed by spectral comparisons to well-established and extensive mass spectral libraries from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (version 17) and the Wiley Registry (11 edition). These commercial libraries boast over 1 million mass spectra making them rather comprehensive for our “general” needs.
  • In addition, an in-house generated library is also utilized for screening purposes as new chemicals are introduced with food, pesticides, plants, and medicinal drugs.

References:

Buchweitz, John P., Keri Carson, Sarah Rebolloso, and Andreas Lehner. "DDT poisoning of big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, in Hamilton, Montana." Chemosphere 201 (2018): 1-5.

Buchweitz, John P., Douglas Mader, and Andreas F. Lehner. "Bifenthrin fatality in a canine: a case report with postmortem concentrations." Journal of analytical toxicology 43, no. 1 (2019): 72-78.