Contact Information

Phone: (517) 353-5068

Email: refsal@msu.edu

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
4125 Beaumont RD BLDG 0215, Room Room 220G
Lansing, MI 48910

Education

  • BS, University of Minnesota, 1973
  • DVM, University of Minnesota, 1975
  • MS, University of Minnesota, 1979
  • PhD, Michigan State University, 1986

Professional Positions

Intern, Department of Large Animal Clinical Studies, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1975-1976

Theriogenology Resident, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 1976-1978

Instructor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1978-1985

Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, then Professor, Endocrine Diagnostician, Department of

Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation and Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic

Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI,

1985-present (2017)

Personal Statement

My graduate study research background began in the area of bovine reproductive endocrinology, performing many assays of steroids and gonadotropins. After completion of graduate studies in 1986, my professional activity has been a diagnostician in a veterinary endocrinology service laboratory, performing, overseeing, and interpreting assays related to thyroid, adrenocortical, parathyroid/vitamin D, insulin, growth hormone, gastrointestinal, and reproductive function in a variety of animal species.

Teaching Interests

Application of hormone assays for diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders of companion animals, especially related to thyroid, adrenocortical, and parathyroid function and vitamin D metabolism

Publications

Refereed in Pubmed (74): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=refsal+k

Abstracts, conference proceedings, non-refereed journals (114)

Book Chapters (15)

Refsal KR. Collection and evaluation of caprine semen. In Current Therapy in Theriogenology 2, Morrow, David A., Ed., WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1986, pp 619-621.

Refsal KR and Nachreiner RF. Monitoring thyroid hormone replacement therapy. In Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XII, ed J.D. Bonagura, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1995, pp 364-368.

Kruger JM, Osborne CA, Nachreiner RF, Refsal KR. Hypercalcemia and renal failure - etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. In Veterinary Clinics of North America: Sm Anim Pract 26:2, ed DJ Polzin, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1996, pp 1417-1445.

Refsal KR and Nachreiner RF. Monitoring thyroid replacement, In BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Endocrinology, 2nd Edition, eds, AG Torrance and CT Mooney, British Small Animal Veterinary Assoc, Cheltenham, UK, 1998, pp 225-228.

Nachreiner RF and Refsal KR. Collection storage and transport of samples for hormone assay. In BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Endocrinology, 2nd Edition, eds AG Torrance and CT Mooney, British Small Animal Veterinary Assoc, Cheltenham, UK, 1998, pp 237-239.

Graham PA, Nachreiner RF, Refsal KR, Provencher-Bolliger AL. Lymphocytic thyroiditis. In Veterinary Clinics of North America: Sm Anim Pract 31:5, eds EN Behrend and RJ Kemppainen, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 2001, pp 915-933.

Refsal KR, Provencher-Bolliger AL, Graham PA, Nachreiner RF. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of calcium regulation. In Veterinary Clinics of North America: Sm Anim Pract 31:5, eds EN Behrend and RJ Kemppainen. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 2001, pp 1043-1062.

Nachreiner RF and Refsal KR. Collection, storage and transport of samples. In BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Endocrinology, 3rd Edition, eds CT Mooney and ME Peterson, British Small Animal Veterinary Assoc, Glouchester, UK, 2004, pp1-5.

Schott II HC, Graves EA, Refsal KR, Nachreiner RF, Eberhart SW, Johnson PJ, Slight SH, Messer NT, Ganjam VK. Diagnosis and treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (classical Cushing’s disease) and metabolic syndrome (peripheral Cushing’s syndrome) in horses. In Advances in Veterinary Dermatology, Volume 5, eds A Hillier, AP Foster, and KW Kwochka, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Oxford, UK, 2005, pp159-169.

Graham PA, Refsal KR, Nachreiner RF. Etiopathologic findings of canine hypothyroidism. In Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 37:4, ed CR Ward, Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia PA, 2007, pp 617-631.

Refsal KR, Harvey AM. Primary hyperaldosteronism, in Consultations in Feline Internal Medicine, Volume 6, eds EN Behrend and JR August, Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO, 2010, pp254-267.

Refsal KR, Nachriener RF. Hormone assays and collection of samples, in BSAVA Manual Canine and Feline Endocrinology, 4th Edition, eds CT Mooney and ME Peterson, British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Glouchester, UK, 2012, pp 1-7.

Harvey AM, Refsal KR. Feline hyperaldosteronism, in BSAVA Manual Canine and Feline Endocrinology, 4th Edition, eds CT Mooney and ME Peterson, British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Glouchester, UK, 2012, pp 204-214.

Harvey AM, Refsal KR. Primary hyperaldosteronism, in Clinical Endocrinology of Companion Animals, eds EN Behrend and J Rand, Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2013, pp 115-127.

Refsal KR, Harvey AM. Feline primary hyperaldosteronism, in Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XV, eds JD Bonagura and DC Twedt, Elsevier, St. Louis MD, USA, 2014, pp 238-242.